52 RAPID POPULATION i costs of education per student increase about as rapidly as per capil Most of these costs represent teachers' salaries, and these rise as incomes rise. Moreover, if the school system is to be expanded and improve portion of expenditures for buildings and equipment and the j component of recurrent costs must be raised. To create a mor system the ratio of students in secondary and higher education, those in primary school, must be increased, even to ensure a suffi ber of primary teachers. In Africa and Asia, secondary educatio fifteen times more expensive per student than primary education,; sity education twenty-three to thirty-nine times more. Finally, im in the quality of education must be attained primarily through rais: qualifications, and this means both greater costs and a lengthening < for teacher education, and a rise in salaries more than proportic increase in per capita incomes, if education has to compete for pers industry and other sectors. For a given increase of GNP, per capita incomes will be higher declines and population growth is slowed. Hence the cost of edi student will increase more than if fertility had remained consta quently, the effect of a fertility decline on educational costs will h proportional to the reduction in the number of children to be edi calculations for a typical case—Pakistan—show that whether or ; ment ratios and educational quality are improved, total educat; would be significantly smaller if present fertility rates were rapid than if fertility were constant. This is basically due to the fac proportion of children to adults in the population would diminis! the percent of GNP required if fertility remained high would e: required for rapidly declining fertility by 13.9 percent if enrolln held constant, by 10.4 percent if enrollment ratios are raised, a percent if, in addition, pupil/teacher ratios are lowered. In 1995, th the high-fertility case would be 38.5 percent, 29.9 percent, and 2" respectively. By 1995, the amount saved each year would be million dollars, more than four times the total expenditures for ec Pakistan in 1970. High Rate of Economic Growth Required to Increase Enrollmi The calculation for Pakistan assumes a growth in GNP of 6 percer or about 350 percent by 1995. Even with this very high rate of grc than 8 percent of national income would have to be devoted to ec order to accomplish the planned increase in enrollment ratios, unl the previous case.